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Brave New World - Aldous Huxley - Audio Book CD Unabridged

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Brave New World - Aldous Huxley - Audio Book CD Unabridged

Brave New World

by Aldous Huxley

75th Anniversary edition read by Michael York

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Brave New World - Aldous Huxley- AudioBook CD

Brand New :  Unabridged 7 Audio CDs 8.3 Hours

Brave New World is a 1932 novel by Aldous Huxley. Set in the London of AD 2540 (632 A.F. in the book), the novel anticipates developments in reproductive technologies and sleep-learning that combine to change society. Huxley answers this book with a reassessment in an essay, Brave New World Revisited (1958), and with his final function, a novel titled Island (1962), both summarized below.

Brave New World is Huxley's many distinguished novel. The ironic title eventually derives from Miranda's speech in Shakespeare's The Tempest, Act V, Scene I:

"O question!
How numerous goodly creatures are there here!
How beauteous mankind is!
O brave modern world
That hath such folks in't!"

However, a derivation not just more recent but more apposite happens in Rudyard Kipling's 1919 poem The Gods of the Copybook Headings:

"And that after this really is accomplished, and the brave modern globe begins
"When all guys are paid for existing and no guy should pay for his sins ..."

You may receive Brave New World by Aldous Huxley as a book here

Translations of the novel into different languages frequently allude to synonymous expressions employed in domestic functions of literature in an attempt to capture the same irony: the French edition of the function is entitled Le Meilleur des Mondes (The Best of All Worlds), an allusion to an expression selected by the philosopher Pangloss in Candide by Voltaire. Aldous Huxley wrote Brave New World in 1932 while he was living in France and England (a British author, he moved to California in 1937). By this time, Huxley had absolutely established himself as a author and social satirist. He was a contributor to Vanity Fair and Vogue publications, had published a collection of his poetry (The Burning Wheel, 1916) and 4 lucrative satirical novels: Crome Yellow in 1921, Antic Hay in 1923, Those Barren Leaves in 1925 and Point Counter Point in 1928. Brave New World was Huxley's fifth novel and initially attempt at a dystopian function.

Brave New World was inspired by the H. G. Wells' Utopian novel Men Like Gods. Wells' optimistic vision of the future gave Huxley the idea to start composing a parody of the novel, which became Brave New World. Contrary to the most well known optimist utopian novels of the time, Huxley desired to offer a frightening vision of the future. Huxley referred to Brave New World as a "negative utopia" (see dystopia), somewhat influenced by Wells' own The Sleeper Awakes and the functions of D. H. Lawrence. Yevgeny Zamyatin's novel We, completed ten years before in 1921, has been recommended as an influence, but Huxley reported that he had unknown of the book at the time. Huxley visited the newly-opened and technologically-advanced Brunner and Mond plant, piece of Imperial Chemical Industries, or ICI, Billingham and provides a fine and detailed account of the processes he saw. The introduction to the latest print of Brave New World states that Huxley was inspired to write the classic novel by this Billingham see. Although the novel is set in the future, it contains modern issues of the early 20th century. The Industrial Revolution was delivering about huge changes to the globe. Mass creation had produced cars, telephones and radios comparatively inexpensive and commonly accessible throughout the developed globe. The Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War (1914-1918) were resonating throughout the planet. Many characters in the story are called after influential individuals of the time, for illustration, Benito Hoover and Bernard Marx.

Huxley was capable to utilize the setting and characters from his futuristic fantasy to express generally held opinions, especially the worry of losing individual identity in the fast-paced globe of the future. An early trip to the United States gave Brave New World much of its character. Not just was Huxley outraged by the culture of youth, commercial cheeriness, intimate promiscuity, and inward-looking nature of several Americans, he additionally found a book by Henry Ford found on the boat to America. There was a worry of Americanization in Europe, thus to find America firsthand, plus read the inspirations and plans of 1 of its foremost residents, spurred Huxley to write Brave New World with America in your mind. The "feelies" are his reaction to the "talkie" movies, and the sex-hormone chewing gum is parody of the ubiquitous chewing gum, which was anything of the symbol of America at that time. In an post in the May 4, 1935 problem of Illustrated London News, G. K. Chesterton explained that Huxley was revolting from the "Age of Utopias" - a time, largely before World War I, inspired by what H. G. Wells and George Bernard Shaw were composing about socialism along with a World State. “ After the Age of Utopias came what we could call the American Age, lasting because lengthy because the Boom. Men like Ford or Mond appeared to countless to have solved the social riddle and prepared capitalism the popular wise. But it wasn't native to us; it went with a buoyant, to not state blatant optimism, that is not our negligent or damaging optimism. Much over Victorian righteousness, or Victorian self-righteousness, that optimism has driven individuals into pessimism. For the Slump brought more disillusionment than the War. A hot bitterness, along with a brand-new bewilderment, ran through all social existence, and was reflected in every literature and art. It was contemptuous, not just of the older Capitalism, but of the aged Socialism. Brave New World is a bit more of the revolt against Utopia than against Victoria. ” For Brave New World, Huxley received almost universal criticism from modern critics, although his function was later embraced. Even the limited sympathetics tended to temper their praises with disparaging remarks.

The novel opens in London in the "year of our Ford 632" (AD 2488 in the Gregorian Calendar). In this globe, the wide majority of the population is unified under The World State, an eternally peaceful, stable society, in which goods are plentiful and everyone is happy. In this society, all-natural reproduction has been completed away with and youngsters are decanted and raised in Hatcheries and Conditioning Centres. Society is divided into five castes, built in these centres. The highest caste is authorized to develop naturally while it matures in its "decanting bottle". The lower castes are treated to chemical interference to arrest intelligence or bodily development. The castes are Alphas, Betas, Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons, with each caste further split into Plus and Minus members. Each Alpha or Beta is the product of 1 fertilized egg developing into 1 fetus. Members of alternative castes are not special but are rather built utilizing the Bokanovsky procedure.

All members of society are conditioned in childhood to hold the values that the World State idealizes. Constant expenditure is the bedrock of stability for the World State. Everyone is encouraged to consume the ubiquitous drug, soma. Soma is a hallucinogen that takes consumers on enjoyable, hangover-free "vacations". It is consumed frequently by all castes. There is not any evidence that this society has any issue with substance misuse. Heterosexual sex is an key piece of society. In The World State, sex is a social activity instead of a signifies of reproduction and is encouraged from early childhood; the limited females who will reproduce are conditioned to take birth control. The maxim "everyone belongs to everyone else" is repeated usually, and the idea of the "family" is repellent. As a outcome, intimate competition and emotional, romantic relationships are obsolete. Marriage is considered an antisocial dirty joke along with a joke about all-natural birth or pregnancy is smut of the many vulgar type.

Spending time alone is considered an outrageous waste of time. Admitting to wanting to be an individual in the social group is shocking, horrifying, and embarrassing. Conditioning trains folks to consume and not to enjoy being alone, thus by spending an afternoon not playing "Obstacle Golf", or not in bed with a friend, 1 is forfeiting acceptance. In The World State, persons usually die at age 60 having maintained wise wellness and youthfulness their complete lifetime. Death isn't feared; anybody reflecting upon it really is reassured by the knowledge that everyone is happy, and that society goes on. Since nobody has family, they have no ties to mourn. The conditioning program eliminates the need for expert competitiveness; individuals are virtually bred to do their jobs and cannot desire another. There is not any competition within castes; each caste member receives the same food, housing, and soma rationing as every alternative member of that caste. There is not any desire to change one's caste. To grow closer with members of the same class, residents engage in mock religious services called Solidarity Services. Twelve folks consume big quantities of soma and sing hymns. The ritual progresses through group hypnosis and climaxes in an orgy. In geographical regions non-conducive to effortless living and usage, The World State enables effectively controlled, securely contained groups of "savages" to reside. In its initially chapters, the novel describes existence in the World State and introduces Lenina and Bernard. Lenina, a Beta, is a socially accepted female, regular for her society, while Bernard, a psychologist, is an outcast. Although an Alpha, Bernard is smaller in stature than the average of his caste -- a standard shared by the lower castes, which offers him an inferiority complex. He defies social norms and despises his means. His function with sleep-teaching has led him to understand that what others believe to be their own deeply held values are just words repeated to youngsters while they sleep. Courting disaster, he is vocal about being different, when stating he dislikes soma because he'd "rather be himself, sad, than someone, happy". Bernard's variations gas rumors that he was accidentally administered alcohol while incubated, a way chosen to keep Epsilons brief.

Bernard is obsessed with Lenina, attributing noble attributes and poetic potentials to her which she refuses to have. A female who rarely issues her own motivations, Lenina is reprimanded by her neighbors because she is not promiscuous enough. Both fascinated and disturbed by Bernard, she responds to Bernard's advances to dispel her standing to be too selective and monogamous. Bernard's just friend is Helmholtz Watson, an Alpha-Plus lecturer at the College of Emotional Engineering (Department of Writing). Helmholtz is furthermore an outcast, but unlike Bernard, it is actually because he is too gifted, too handsome. Helmholtz, lucrative, charming, appealing, is drawn to Bernard as a confidant: he will talk to Bernard about his desire to write poetry. Bernard loves Helmholtz because, unlike anybody else, Helmholtz loves Bernard. He is additionally, Bernard realizes, everything Bernard can not be.

Bernard, desperately wanting Lenina's attentions, attempts to impress her by taking her on christmas to a Savage Reservation. The reservation, positioned in New Mexico, consists of the community called Malpais. From afar, Lenina thinks it is exciting. In individual, she finds the aged, toothless natives who mend their clothing instead of throw them away repugnant, and the condition is produced worse when she discovers that she has left her soma pills at the resort hotel. Bernard is fascinated, although he realizes his seduction plans have failed. In typical tourist fashion, Bernard and Lenina observe what at initially appears to be a quaint native ceremony. The village folk, whose culture resembles that of the Pueblo peoples like the Hopi and Zuni, start by singing, but the ritual fast becomes a passion play where a village boy is whipped to unconsciousness. After, the couple encounters Linda, a girl formerly of The World State who has been living in Malpais since she came on a trip and became separated from her group and her date, whom she pertains to as "Tomakin", but who is revealed to be Bernard's boss, Thomas. She became expecting because she mistimed her "Malthusian Drill" and there were no facilities for an abortion. Linda gave birth to a son, John (later called John the Savage) who is today eighteen.

Through conversations with Linda and John, we discover that their lifetime has been hard. For eighteen years, they have been treated as outsiders; the natives detest Linda for sleeping with the guys of the village, as she was conditioned to do and John was mistreated for his mother's actions. John's 1 joy was that his mom had taught him to read although he just had 2 books: a scientific manual from his mother's job along with a collection of the functions of Shakespeare (a function banned in The World State). John has been denied the religious rituals of the village, although he has watched them and even has had a few of his own religious experiences in the desert.Old, weathered and tired, Linda wants to return to her familiar globe in London; she is tired of the lifetime without soma. John wants to find the "brave modern world" his mom has told him thus much about. Bernard wants to take them back as revenge against Thomas, who threatened to reassign Bernard to Iceland as punishment for Bernard's antisocial values. Bernard arranges permission for Linda and John to leave the reservation.

Upon his return to London, Bernard is confronted by Thomas, the Director of the Hatchery and Conditioning Centre who, in front of an audience of higher-caste Centre employees, denounces Bernard for his antisocial behavior and again threatens to send him to Iceland. Bernard, thinking that for the very first time in his existence he has the upper hand, defends himself by presenting the Director with his lost lover and unknown son, Linda and John. The humiliated Director resigns in shame. Bernard's hot pet savage makes him the toast of London. Pursued by the highest members of society, capable to bed any girl he fancies, Bernard revels in attention he when scorned. Everyone who is anybody can endure Bernard to dine with all the interesting, different, gorgeous John. Even Lenina grows attracted to the savage, while the savage falls in love with her. Bernard, intoxicated with attention, falls in love with himself.

The victory, still, is brief lived. Linda, decrepit, toothless, friendless, goes on a permanent soma getaway while John, appalled by what he perceives to be an clear society, refuses to attend Bernard's parties. Society drops Bernard as fast as it had taken him. Bernard turns to the individual he'd believed to be his 1 true friend, just to find Helmholtz get into a fast, simple camaraderie with John. Bernard is left an outcast yet again as he watches truly the only 2 guys he ever connected with discover more of interest in each different than they ever did in him.

John and Helmholtz's island of peace is short. John grows frustrated by a society he finds wicked and debased. He is moved by Lenina, and loathes her intimate advances, which revolt and shame him. He is heartbroken when his mom succumbs to soma and dies in a hospital. John's grief bewilders and revolts the hospital employees, and their deficiency of response to Linda's death prompts John to test to force humanity within the employees by throwing their soma rations out a window. The ensuing riot brings the authorities who soma-gas the crowd. Bernard and Helmholtz arrive to aid John, but just Helmholtz assists him, while Bernard stands to the side.When they wake, Bernard, Helmholtz and John are brought before Mustapha Mond, the Resident World Controller for Western Europe. Bernard and Helmholtz are told they is delivered to Iceland and the Falkland Islands, 2 of many island colonies reserved for exiled residents. Helmholtz looks forward to living found on the remote Falkland Islands, where he may become a severe author but Bernard is devastated. Mond explains that exile to the islands is not thus much a danger to force freethinkers to reform and rejoin society but a region where they might act as they please, because they are not an influence found on the population. After Bernard and Helmholtz leave the space, a philosophical argument between Mustapha and John leads to the choice that John are not transferred to an island. Mustapha states that he too when risked banishment to an island as a result of some experiments which were considered controversial by the state.

In the final chapters, John isolates himself from society in a lighthouse outside London where he finds his hermit existence interrupted from within by lust for Lenina. To atone, John brutally whips himself in the open, a ritual the Indians in his own village had mentioned he wasn't capable of. His self-flagellation, caught on movie and shown publicly, destroys his hermit existence from without as hundreds of gawking sightseers, intrigued by John's violent behavior, fly out to observe the savage in individual. Even Lenina comes to observe, crying a rip John refuses to see. The sight of the female whom he both adores and blames, is too much for him; John attacks and whips her. This sight of genuine, unbridled emotion forces the crowd wild with excitement, and – handling it as they are conditioned to – they turn on each different, in a frenzy of beating and chanting that devolves into a mass orgy of soma and sex. In the morning, John, hopeless, alone and horrified by his drug employ, debasement and attack on Lenina, makes 1 last attempt to escape civilization and atone. When thousands of gawking sightseers arrive that morning, frenzied at the prospect of seeing the savage work again, they find John dead, hanging by the neck.

The World State is made upon the principles of Henry Ford’s assembly line—mass creation, homogeneity, predictability, and expenditure of disposable customer goods. At the same time as the World State lacks any supernatural-based religions, Ford himself is revered as a deity, and characters enjoy Ford Day and swear oaths by his name (e.g., “By Ford!”). The World State calendar numbers years in the “AF” era—“After Ford”—with year 1 AF being similar to 1908 AD, the year in which Ford’s initial Model T rolled off of his assembly line. The novel's actual year is AD 2540, but it's referred to in the book as A.F 632. From birth, members of every class are indoctrinated by recorded voices repeating slogans while they sleep (called "hypnopædia" in the book) to believe that their own class is ideal for them. Any residual unhappiness is solved by an antidepressant along with a hallucinogenic drug called soma (Greek for "body"), distributed by the Arch-Community Songster of Canterbury, a secularised adaptation of the Sacrament of Communion ("The Body of Christ").

Contrary to what contemporary visitors would anticipate, the biological techniques utilized to control the populace in Brave New World never include hereditary technology. Huxley wrote the book in the 1920s, thirty years before Watson and Crick noticed the structure of DNA. But, Mendel's function with inheritance patterns in peas had been re-discovered in 1900 and the eugenics movement, based on Artificial selection, was perfectly established. Huxley's family included a amount of prominent biologists including Thomas Huxley, half-brother and Nobel Laureate Andrew Huxley, and brother Julian Huxley who was a biologist and included in the eugenics movement. In light of the, the truth that Huxley emphasizes conditioning over breeding is notable (see nature vs nurture). As the research author Matt Ridley place it, Brave New World describes an "environmental not a hereditary heck." Human embryos and fetuses are conditioned via a carefully tailored regimen of chemical (like exposure to hormones and toxins), thermal (exposure to intense heat or cold, as one's future profession would dictate) and additional ecological stimuli, although there is an element of selective breeding too.

* In 1980, Brave New World was removed from classrooms in Miller, Missouri among additional challenges. In 1993, an attempt was prepared to remove this novel from a California school's necessary reading list because it "centered around bad activity".
* The American Library Association ranks Brave New World as #52 on their list of The 100 Many Frequently Challenged Books of 1990-2000.
* A amount of Polish critics believe Huxley plagiarized 2 research fiction novels - Miasto światłości (The City of the Sun) and Podróż poślubna pana Hamiltona, created by Polish writer Mieczysław Smolarski in 1924.

Comparisons with George Orwell's 1984

Social critic Neil Postman contrasts the worlds of 1984 and Brave New World in the foreword of his 1985 book Amusing Ourselves to Death. He writes:

What Orwell feared were those who would ban books. What Huxley feared was that there will be no reason to ban a book, for there will be nobody who sought to read 1. Orwell feared those who would deprive us of info. Huxley feared those who would provide us thus much that we will be reduced to passivity and egoism. Orwell feared that the truth will be hidden from us. Huxley feared the truth will be drowned in a sea of irrelevance. Orwell feared we would become a captive culture. Huxley feared we would become a trivial culture, preoccupied with some equivalent of the feelies, the orgy porgy, and the centrifugal bumblepuppy. As Huxley remarked in Brave New World Revisited, the civil libertarians and rationalists that are ever found on the alert to oppose tyranny "failed to consider man's virtually infinite appetite for distractions." In 1984, Orwell added, individuals are controlled by inflicting pain. In Brave New World, they are controlled by inflicting pleasure. In brief, Orwell feared that what we worry might ruin us. Huxley feared that what we desire can ruin us.

Journalist Christopher Hitchens, who has himself published many articles on Huxley along with a book on Orwell, notes the difference between your 2 texts in the introduction to his 1999 post "Why Americans Are Not Taught History":audiobook

We dwell in a present-tense culture that somehow, greatly, decided to employ the telling expression "You're history" as a choice reprobation or insult, and therefore elected to speak overlooked volumes about itself. By that standard, the forbidding dystopia of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four absolutely belongs, both as a text and as a date, with Ur and Mycenae, while the hedonist nihilism of Huxley nevertheless beckons toward a painless, amusement-sodden, and stress-free consensus. Orwell's was a home of horrors. He appeared to stress credulity because he posited a regime that would go to any lengths to own and possess history, to rewrite and construct it, and to inculcate it through coercion. Whereas Huxley ... rightly foresaw that any such regime can break but couldn't bend. In 1988, 4 years after 1984, the Soviet Union scrapped its official history curriculum and announced a newly authorized variation was someplace in the functions. This was the precise time when the regime conceded its own extinction. For true blissed-out and vacant servitude, though, you want an otherwise sophisticated society where no severe history is taught.

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